Health and life

By - mobaon

Electronic Smoking Cigarettes – A Healthier Alternative?

 Tobacco companies won’t admit that smoking is an addiction but everyone knows it is so. And it is an addiction that’s powerful enough to keep millions smoking tobacco and jeopardizing their health. The tar in cigarette smoke is a carcinogen and tobacco contains many other harmful substances. That’s why no matter how pleasant smoking may be, almost every smoker has thought about quitting. Unfortunately, that’s easier said than done. But there is an alternative now – in electronic smoking cigarettes.

 With just about everything else benefiting from the rapid advances in technology, electronic cigarettes should come as no surprise. Let me explain the idea behind it. If you’re a smoker who has tried to quit, you know that it’s not just the rush from the nicotine that makes it hard to kick the habit. It’s also a psychological thing. Holding the cigarette or pipe, lighting up after dinner or during a break, tasting and twirling the smoke. So what if you could have all that, but without the tar and other carcinogens of tobacco smoke?

 This is where electronic smoking comes in. It doesn’t do away with nicotine, so there are no withdrawal symptoms. Unlike patches or gum, it also doesn’t take away the physical aspect of a cigarette, a cigar, a pipe or a cigarillo; it does replace them with an e-cigarette, e-cigar, e-pipe and e-cigarillo. These smoking products use sophisticated, patented technology to vaporize special liquids, not surprisingly called an e-liquid, to produce smoke and deliver nicotine just as if you were smoking a real cigarette. For those who like the comforting glow of burning tobacco when they inhale, those e-smoking products even have a little light that simulates the glow when you inhale. Not necessary as far as I am concerned, but the makers apparently thought it added a nice touch.

 So the idea here is to simulate smoking, down to getting that nice nicotine rush and the smoke, without actually burning tobacco with all its associated negative health aspects. But if there is still smoke, isn’t that bad for you anyway? Well, it’d probably be better not to smoke at all, but if tar from smoking is the primary concern, there is none.

 How does one use electronic smoking products? Do you just flip out an e-pack, smoke and then discard the cigarette butt? Nope; it’s all different. Since the e-cigarette has a rechargeable battery and a liquid container for the smoking liquid, you use it over and over again. In that sense it is more like a pipe where you don’t discard the pipe but simply put in more tobacco. Likewise, you don’t discard electronic smoking products; you simply put in a new e-cartridge and occasionally recharge the battery (there’s even a USB-eCig that doesn’t need a battery; you just plug it into a USB port on your computer).

 Do all e-cigarettes (there are also “e-MiniCig” tiny cigarettes) taste the same? They don’t. There are a couple of dozen tastes to select from, including those of some leading cigarette brands, and there are also different nicotine levels, from none at all to extra-high. There is no doubt that electronic smoking cigarettes require getting used to, and the technology is probably still in its infancy, but smokers who are really concerned about tar may want to take a look at e-cigs.

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By - mobaon

Prevention & Treatment – nCoV

Prevention & Treatment – nCoV

There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus. However, as a reminder, CDC always recommends everyday preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, including:

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom; before eating; and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
  • If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Always wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Stay home when you are sick.
  • Cover when you cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.

For information about nCoV singapore see HVAC website!

By - mobaon

Licensed CBD Premium Hemp Liquid Company

CBD (Cannabidiol) oil comes from hemp. Many people confuse hemp with marijuana, but hemp is definitely a different plant. Marijuana and hemp may share a similar scientific name, Cannabis sativa, however are not the identical.

Marijuana is cultivated primarily due to the psychoactive cannabinoid, a chemical compound called tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, for recreational and medicinal use. Marijuana contains both THC and CBD.

Hemp contains just a trace of THC, lower than 0.3% when compared with marijuana’s hefty 5-35%. The main cannabinoid in hemp is CBD, but you will find over 100 other cannabinoids in hemp, in addition to compounds that produce tastes and scents called terpenes (e.g. citrusy odor of oranges, unique aroma of pine trees, or sweet flower odor of lavender).

Hemp Securely | Premium Hemp E Liquid may provide an option for treating a variety of chronic pain: fibromyalgia, gout, HIV, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic, and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms symptoms. Studies learned that applying CBD oil on the problem area allows you lower pain and inflammation. CBD functions impacting cannabinoid receptor activity by the body processes, reducing inflammation, and reaching neurotransmitters. In addition, some studies demonstrated that CBD eases depression so helping with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. (Please note that marijuana won’t help with either and may even actually worsen psychosis.)

Important Considerations When Buying CBD Oil

  • Only buy CBD items which are all natural and contain no additives, preservatives, emulsifiers, or flavorings.
  • When buying CBD oil, the label should indicate simply how much CBD is with the bottle (in milligrams or mg) and its particular concentration (e.g. 1 drop = 2.4 mg of CBD).
  • Hemp Securely | Buy CBD E Liquid that gives third-party lab-verified test most current listings for each batch of CBD it sells. The Certificate of Analysis (COA) verifies the product actually contains just what it claims and also the concentration of the CBD. It should feature an analysis showing the amount of pesticides, herbicides, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, and high metals from the product.

Eighty long years later, hemp finally regained its legal status from the U.S. Hemp, thought of as cannabis with lower than 0.3% THC, is taken off from Schedule I controlled substances. Hemp-derived goods are legal after they come from licensed hemp growers. More and more universities and hospitals have begun to study it. Americans may now use CBD legally. It can be ordered on the web Hemp Securely | Hemp Flower for sale and shipped to every one 50 states.


By - mobaon

What does a phlebotomist do?

This is a common question from those who are not familiar with the job of a phlebotomist. The phlebotomist goes by other names as well, such as lab technician or lab assistant. The phlebotomy technician wears many hats. They do not only draw blood, which is called venipuncture. The phlebotomist obtains capillary sticks, centrifuges blood, obtains and tests urine samples and process insurance.
If the phlebotomist is working in an outpatient lab, they may also be in charge of cleaning up the lab between clients.

Who are the patients of a phlebotomy technician?

As a  phlebotomist, you will draw blood on infants, toddlers, children, adults and the elderly. You have to have a thorough knowledge of the blood specimens which you are testing, such as the additives in the tubes and the various preparations for the tests.  You will need lot of knowledge  to work in this field. Your job requires being on your feet from the time you start work to the time that you finish.
If you are a phlebotomist working in the hospital, you must go from one floor to another rapidly. The urgency of your job does not lend you the luxury of waiting on an elevator. Instead you must use the stairs. Your supervisors understand this and therefore only schedule you several floors together, such as floors three, four and five, rather than ten, one and seven.
However, if you are a phlebotomist working a midnight shift you may actually have to work the entire hospital with one other phlebotomist in the emergency room.

The workload of a phlebotomy technician

As a phlebotomist you are affectionately called the, “vampire”. Why? Because you’re always in a hurry to get your blood and go!

Regardless of how stressful their job, the Phlebotomy technician must take time with each and every patient. Many patients are afraid of having their blood drawn, especially children, so the phlebotomist must have a gentle demeanor and be encouraging. When performing a blood draw on a child the phlebotomist must engage the parents for their help in distracting or holding the child.
But obtaining a blood sample is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to what skills the phlebotomist must know. Understanding the correct order of draw and the additives in each tube is essential in dictating whether or not the phlebotomist comes back with a viable specimen.

Training and knowledge of a phlebotomist

The phlebotomist must have as strict knowledge of infection control and how to prevent cross contamination. After all, the phlebotomist may find themselves drawing blood in diverse places, such as in emergency situations, in patients homes or by the hospital bedside.
Knowledge of proper sharps disposal is also a key element of importance during the shift of any phlebotomist. One mistake could cause irreparable harm to either the phlebotomist or the patient. The mistake which is being referred is the mistake of a needle stick.
The phlebotomist is always at risk of accidentally getting stuck by a dirty needle. That is why the phlebotomist must be trained to understand the seriousness of accidental needle sticks and know the procedures if such scenarios occur.

Will I like being a phlebotomist?

Most phlebotomists love their jobs.  You’ll find it an exciting and rewarding profession. Phlebotomy technician class does not require prior medical experience and the classes are usually anywhere from four weeks to six months.  As a Graduate phlebotomists you will be able to find jobs readily in labs or hospitals. The best thing is that your pay is also about twice that of minimum wage. The job of a phlebotomy technician is an exciting and rewarding career.

By - mobaon

What is End-to-end Encryption?

End-to-end encryption is by far the most reliable way for secure and private online communication. End-to-end communication does not allow others to read or access the private conversation, and this is accomplished by encrypting the messages of both the users. Recent advancements in the technology have made end-to-end encryption accessible and straightforward.
What is Encryption?

Encryption is the encoding of messages which can be only decrypted or decoded by the receiver of that message. Encryption software transforms the messages into some pattern called ciphertext that is unintelligible. It is developed as a secure way of communication that keeps the audience away from that conversation.

If someone accessed your messages, they would not be able to decode these messages without the key. It is not possible to break the high-level encryption because a 256-bit key is used to create a combination of 2 ^ 256. No supercomputer can break a key in a reasonable period.

That’s how encryption works;

    A directly readable text (“Hello Dad”) is encoded into an incomprehensible, garbled message (“OhsieW5ge+osh1aehah6”).
    This encrypted text is sent through the Internet, where the others get only the garbled text “OhsieW5ge+osh1aehah6.”
    When that message is received at the recipient side, only the intended recipient can decode or decrypt the message into the original message(“Hello Dad”)
    The recipient and only the recipient does have some way to decrypt it back into the original message when it arrives at its destination (“hello mum”).

What is End-to-End Encryption (E2EE)

This method is different and much better than simple encryption techniques that most of the companies are using. These companies have the encryption keys of your messages, and they can access them. For example, Hotmail and Gmail can read your mails.

End-to-end encryption (E2EE) encodes or encrypts your texts among the two end-points across the entire journey. When transiting through the servers, the messages remain encrypted, and no one can access these messages, including your ISP provider, service provider, or some third party.
What are the types of encryption?

Two types of encryption are Symmetric Encryption and Asymmetric Encryption.

What is Symmetric Encryption

When both the receiver and the sender use the same personal encryption key for decoding and encoding an encrypted message, it is called Symmetric encryption. The drawback of symmetric encryption is the sharing of the key between the two parties.

A secure and protected tunnel needs to be established so that no interceptor can grab the key for decoding the message.

Asymmetric Encryption

Asymmetric encryption is using a more secure and latest way to provide you more security. It encrypts your message by two keys, a private key and public key. Both the receiver and sender use the same public key but they both use a different private key. The sender and the receiver of the messages do not know the private key of each other. Both the keys are required to access the message.
What are the Advantages of End-To-End Encryption

There are many advantages of using the end to end encryption for communication.

Secures your Data: End to encryption ensures that only a few people can read your messages. In some case, I the hackers attack your server, and they steal all of your information. But they won’t be able to read your encrypted messages because only you have the decryption keys.

Keeps the Data Private: Google has complete access to your emails. Google can also save those emails which you have deleted from your side. By using end to end encryption, you can easily control who can read and access your messages.

Perfect for Democracy: Everybody is entitled to privacy. End to end protection protects the freedom of expression and protects against intimidation, oppressed dissidents, activists, and reporters.
How to use End-to-End Encryption

You can implement end-to-end encryption on your own, but this is a very complex task. Ensure that you have this feature in the service or software you are using, and you need to enable it to communicate safely. If you manage confidential information such as financial data or personal information, you must use it.

    End to end encryption secures instant messaging applications. Many applications like Messenger and Telegram do not have enabled this fantastic feature by default. So you should allow this feature to secure your messages.
    E2E also secures mailing communication. Secure your mails, and only the intended recipient can read the message.
    E2E encryption is often called the client-side encryption in P2P service and backup. It only encodes your information until it arrives at the service provider. In this case, zero-knowledge encryption is much better because it encodes your data, which can only be decrypted with your device or account.
    Your service provider cannot access your data, but if somehow you lost your device or forgot the password so you will lose all of your data.

Risks of using End-to-End Encryption

    Endpoints are not protected while using E2E, and if some hacker hacks any of your devices, he can access the private and public keys. Hackers can also steal your personal information through your application.
    Most applications provide you the backup of your data. This data is not encrypted and can be accessed by intruders. Always ensure to implement the E2E encryption on all the applications.
    Backdoor assault is a secret encryption bypass. Using the malware, trojans, or malicious code, hackers can make backdoor attacks. Hackers could intercept your computer and access your personal information.

Virtual Private Network

You should use a VPN Service  to protect yourself against the online packet sniffer and cybercriminals. RitaVPN is one of the most secure and unblock websites services that encrypt all of your data, and no one can monitor your activities. It changes your IP address, and you can access the blocked websites or content. Download the RitaVPN from the official website and stay safe from all the hackers and cybercriminals.

By - mobaon

Cancer and Death of the Planet

Humans cannot change because were programmed by our inner voice, that is certainly how we’re also controlled because of the Spirit from the Universe. My insight derives from my reincarnation and knowledge that religions are definitely the enemies of these force. There is no heaven or hell but fear and reward promoted by organisations to draw people with their messages and forestall them from leaving.

That describes the question of why has it been allowed in the event the Spirit is definately a power? The answer is simple and logical if you has an open mind.

To start out with the Spirit communicates which consists of people. That is people with a link for it. To hep us identify them and also to stay in touch rules received that are in prophecies inside the Old Testament as well as in Revelation. To understand those required input from that link and guidance towards the oldest religion that was buried through the lies of recent ones.

The Spirit demonstrated the primary ideology and the way it was altered by devious means so the roots and links were concealed behind a barrier of deception that normally can’t be penetrated. That is referred to as ‘Wall in the Daughter of Zion’, which can be mentioned many times from the bible.

It also showed the amount language and historical changes have permit this to happen. The question of when and just how religions developed as well as the identity of 666 were also made known. The depth of info to appreciate the emergence of contemporary faith and unravel the so-called mysteries was where it took me to complete the job.

The research knowning that knowledge emerges freely so people who find themselves linked for the Spirit will be aware how they are actually deceived as well as their spirituality robbed or altered by fear. Those not connected resemble the soil where the former have become despite the handicaps. Now they are now being gathered which revelation is aiding the harvest.

Religions and 666 happen to be used through the Spirit to get this about. We are inside end times since many now realise plus the ingathering takes place, according on the prophecies and also the promise from the real God. The unconnected will disappear because they’re but something to produce the best on the crop. The aim was always to make those the Children of Israel thus to their inheritance at the end with the day. It is happening now.

By - mobaon

Benefits Of Massage Therapy

Nowadays, the excitement of therapeutic massage is on the rise. A few years back, that it was taken instead approach but has developed into a mainstream approach within the here and now. Therefore, you will find a lot of companies that provide message therapy. This technique necessitates the use of hands-on methods so that you can boost circulation, promote relaxation, improve sleep, relieve anxiety, reduce stress as well as reducing tension. Let’s take a glance at some from the common important things about massage.


When one’s body is under stress, you suffer from the variety of problems, including headaches, heartburn, sleeplessness, and extra weight. This happens because body releases a lot of the stress hormone called cortisol.

With massage, you’ll be able to reduce the cortisol levels, which helps the body recover again. Also, it triggers relaxation, improves your mood and relieves tension.

Stress Reduction

Massage therapy provides respite from stress. Moreover, if you’ve found yourself regular sessions, you are able to enjoy increased stamina, reduced pain and stimulated emotion levels.

Normal Blood Pressure

If you will find the problem of hypertension, you may normalize your high blood pressure wi

By - mobaon

Before Getting the Massage Therapy

Massage is an excellent technique should you be looking for mental and physical peace. As a matter of fact, this therapy provides a lot of health perks, for example better sleep quality, anxiety relief, stronger immunity, and much better circulation, to mention a few. Before you go for restorative massage, be sure to remember quite a few. Let’s learn about them.

Breathe Deeply

During a session, when the therapist is hoping to work out an undesirable knot, don’t hold your breath. What you should do is breathe deeply instead, particularly if the professional is focusing on a difficult area. Breathing deeply can provide oxygen for the tense muscles.

Drink Plenty of Water

After the conclusion of a session, be sure you drink plenty of water. Just like a workout, you should drink water to rehydrate the muscles. So, mineral water post a therapeutic massage session is basically important for building healthy muscle and having rid of metabolic waste.

Take A Warm Shower

An easy way to be prepared before a session should be to take a warm bath. It will help your head and body feel comfortable. Also, the therapist will almost certainly appreciate you in case you reach his s

By - mobaon

How To Find The Best Optometrist Near You?

There are over 40.000 optometrists in the USA. This is a number that allows you to choose between them and find the best one because you only deserve the best for your health.

Taking care of your vision should be a top priority. There’s no sense more important the sense for seeing. Without it, we feel lost and confused, especially if we were used to living with the ability to see clearly.

Going to the optometrist is not a terrible experience but it is still not something we do with love and joy. It’s not a place that we go for fun. Still, finding the best place that offers the best treatment is something we owe to ourselves. In this article, we’re talking about what you need to mind when looking for a place that will take care of your eyes.

Find all the options

First things, first. Find every practice and clinic around you. There are probably lots of them and you just need to locate them. To do that, simply open an internet browser and type eye doctor near me into the search engine. The map will show you all the places that you can visit.


Since you did this, it’s clear that you’re supposed to be looking for the place that’s the nearest. There’s no logic in going to the other part of the city for an eye exam if you can do it by walking to the next block. This will save you money, time, and stress.

Check the insurance

Next stop in the search is checking whether the closest one is covered by your insurance policy. As complex the health system in the States is, you might need to do a long search for the place that’s covered by your plan.

If you find a place that’s right next door, but it’s not covered by your company, you’ll have to pay a significant amount of cash for their services. This, also has no logic, right? Always look for a clinic that will be free for you.

Read some reviews

Every place in the USA is available on the internet for everyone to see it. Make sure you do proper research online and you find some of the eye doctors on the pages dealing with reviews.

There’s a ton of pages like this offering comments and reviews from clients that visited the clinic you’re about to visit too. Before you do that, you can check their experience and see if you like what you see. For example, if you see that lots of patients are complaining about the hygiene of the place, you know that you must be looking for another place. Hygiene is the most important part of eye care.

On the other hand, you might find a place that’s not the closest one, is covered by your insurance and has great reviews. All this means you should give it a chance and even though you’ll have to drive a little more, in the end, you’ll get the best treatment in town there is.

Ask for license

Before you indulge in a treatment, you must know where you’re actually going. If you’re looking for an optometrist and the best place you find is an ophthalmology clinic, it means you should be looking for another place. See more about the difference between the two here.

Of course, the ophthalmologist can do everything the first one can, but these doctors usually charge more and deal with a much more complex matter that you don’t really need at the moment. In the end, you’ll be wasting your resources and their time for something that should’ve been done someplace else.


Using these steps and methods will help you find the best place there is. In the ocean of eye care doctors, you should find the best for you. Sometimes they are just a few steps away, and sometimes you’ll have to look deeper and travel a little more for the best care there is.

Either way, you need to know that there’s no compromise with excellent health care. Choose only the best and make sure you treat your body with time.

By - mobaon


1. Introduction

Aerobic, gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus will be the causative agent of countless opportunistic infection in human and animals (Kools and Bannerman, 1995). As a human pathogen, S.aureus causes superficial, deep-skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis and bacteremia, together with a variety of Toxic – mediated diseases including gastroenteritis, staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome and Toxic shock syndrome 25-30% of healthy people carry this organism on his or her skin (or) of their nose. (Fidalgo et al., 1990 – Roberts et al., 1991).

Staphylococcus aureus produces a selection of extracellular toxins and virulence factors that give rise to its pathogenic potential. S.aureus strains produce phyrogeneic exotoxins, including Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SES) and TSST-1 (Sharma et al., 2000). SES undoubtedly are a group of single – chain, low molecular mass protein which can be similar in composition and biological activity by differ in antigenicity (Fueyo et al., 2001). Enterotoxins of S.aureus may be detected by their biological activity, by immuno assays and also by PCR (MC Lauchlin et al., 2000) The prevalence of enterotoxigenic clinical S.aureus isolates are already reported in numerous countries by many investigators (Mehrotra et al., 2000; Fueyo et al., 2001; Becker et al., 2003).

a)Methicillin – Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin – resistant staphylococcus aureus is a staph that’s resistant to certain antibiotics. These antibiotics include methicillin and other including cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin and nafcillin and also a closely related class of medication known as cephalosporins. Methicillin resistant S.aureus strains are resistance against methicillin and essentially all the other beta-lactam antibiotics

MRSA was 1st reported in 1961, immediately after methicillin was introduced into human medicine to take care of penicillin resistant staphylococci. MRSA has since emerged for an important pathogen is human medicine (Lee JH – 2003) MRSA is often a major hospital associated together with community – associated pathogen causing a lots of disease, including endocarditis, Oesteomyelitis, TSS, Pneumonia, food poisoning and carbuncles (Oliveira D.C., et al., 2005).

In Indian hospital, MRSA is amongst the common reasons for hospital acquired infections and different hospitals have deported anywhere from around 30 to 80% Methicillin resistance determined by antibiotic sensitivity tests. Methicillin resistance is a result of the presence of A gene coding for penicillin – binding protein (PBP 2A) which has a low affinity for beta – Lactam antibiotics. This gene is persisted staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) Mec, a distinctive mobile genetic element, included in the staphylococcal chromosome (Kalayama et al., 2001).

b) Coagulase Negative Staphylococci

There is definitely an increasing knowing of the abilities of coagulase – negative staphylococci to cause disease. Coagulase negative staphylococci happen to be recognized as the most common cause of prosthetic valve, endocarditis, neurosurgical shunt infection and infection of prosthetic orthopedic devices (Siebert and W.T et al., 1978). In general coagulase negative staphylococci are reported as “Staphylococcus epidermidis”. However coagulase negative staphylococci and Interogenous list of organism and lots of new species happen to be proposed by Kloos and Schleifer (1976).

Since many staphylococci are penicillin resistant through manufacture of b-Lactamase, Methicillin and Other b-Lactamase-resistant penicillins are crucial therapeutic agents for treatment of staphylococcal infection. However significant % of S.epidermidis is Methicillin resistant (Sieberet et al., (1978) and Sabath et al., 1969).

c) TSST – Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) as well as associated with S.aureus were first explained by Todd et al., in 1978. S.aureus strains to make disease within clinical and food settings depends, among other determinants, on its ability to provide extracellular toxins. A number of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SES) classified as A, B, C1, C2, C3, D or might be produced by some strains (Pimbley and Patel 1998). Most staph aureus isolated from patient with TSS, an intense acute illness that rapidly causes multi organ system failure, create a Toxin called TSST-1. Although classically regarding tampon use,

TSS has also been related to a assortment of non-menstruation related conditions (Hertzer, 2001).

Staphylococcus aureus is carrying the tst gene encoding TSST-1. (See, R.H. & A.W Chow, 1989). The tst gene is chromosomal and also the toxin is symptomatically in connection with the staphylococcal enterotoxin gang of toxins (Iandolo. J.J., 1989). (Blomster and Hantamaa D.A. et al., 1986).

d) Detection in the TSST-1 gene

Production of Coagulase, an item of coagulase (coa) gene, may be the principal criteria from the clinical microbiology laboratory for that identification of S.aureus. The coagulase ptn can be an important virulence factor for S.aureus. The coa gene has polymorphic repeat regions that is usually used for differentiating S.aureus isolates. The variable region of coa gene includes 81 bp tandem short sequence repeat (SSR S) (Van Belkum et al., 1998).

Amplification of coa and RFLP analysis of amplified products for that discrimination if S.aureus isolates formerly been reported (Goh et al., 1992; Shopsin et al., 2000; da silva & da silva, 2006).

TSST is really a potentially fatal multi system disease presenting with fever, hypotension, vomiting, diarrhoea, mucosal hyperaemia plus an erythematous rash. This is related to infection of mucosal or sequestered sites by TSST production S.aureus strains usually of bacteriophage group-I.

TSST type-1 (also referred to as enterotoxin type F (or) pyrogenic exotoxin C) is frequently responsible, through enterotoxins B (or) C might also cause the syndrome. TSS Strains produced TSST-1, the toxin accepted because the most likely root cause of TSS (MS Bergdoll et al., 1984). Coagulase negative strain produces TSST-1 and SEA. Since there’s been disagreement about the output of TSST-1 by coagulase negative strains (Crass et al., 1986).



A Totally 19 pus samples were collected for that studies. Pus samples were collected from wound-infected persons by utilizing sterile cotton dipped swab and samples collected from in around Namakkal area hospital. After assortment of samples immediately inoculated into peptone water and also the sample were taken to the laboratory within couple of hours.

b) ISOLATION OF Staphylococcus aureus

Loopful of culture from peptone water was streaked around the Mannital salt agar plate. The plates were incubated at 37oC for 24-48 hrs. The isolated colony from selective media was adopted for further analysis.

c) IDENTIFICATION OF Staphylococcus aureus

I) GRAM STAINING ( Hans Christian Gram (1853-1938)

Bacterial smears of 16-18 hrs old cultures were made on clean grease free slides, heat fixed and stained as follows. The slide was flooded with crystal violet solution to get a minute, drained and rinsed with water; then Grams iodine solution for starters minute, drained and rinsed with water. Decolourised with ethyl alcohol for 30 Sec and later on counterstained with safranin for starters minute and observed under an oil immersion microscope.


The hanging drop technique was followed to observe the motility from the organism. Observation is made under the microscope for that darting or cork screw movement with the organism.


A little culture was placed spanning a clean slide. A drop of 3% peroxide was placed within the culture and observed for effervescence. The creation of effervescence showed the ability to provide the enzyme catalase.


The organism spotted on oxidase disc (HiMedia) the blue or purple colour change was observed within 10-seconds. Purple colour being positive while negative is denoted without the need of colour change.



A loopful of culture was inoculated into peptone water and incubated at 370 C for overnight. After incubation 0.5ml of Kovac’s reagent was added.

Positive reaction -Cherry red ring

Negative reaction -Yellow colour ring


The colony from nutrient agar slant was inoculated into MRVP medium and was then incubated at 370 C for overnight. The test helpful to detect the creation of acid during fermentation. In addition 0.5 ml of methyl red was added.

Positive reaction -Red colour

Negative reaction -Yellow colour


A loopful of culture was inoculated into MRVP medium, that has been incubated at 370C for overnight, to detect acetyl methylcarbinol from pyruvic acid. In addition of VP reagent (0.5ml of 5% alpha-naphthol and 0.5ml of 40% KOH) was added.

Positive reaction -Red colour

Negative reaction -Remains colourless


The culture was streaked to the Simmon’s citrate agar slant and incubated at 370C for overnight.

Positive reaction -Deep Purssian blue colour

Negative reaction -Green colour


A loopful of culture was inoculated into Christenson’s urea broth tube. Production of urease was indicated.

Positive reaction -Pink colour

Negative reaction -No colour change


A loopful of culture was inoculated in different sugars from the sugar media together with Durham’s tube and Andrade’s indicator.

Positive reaction -Pink colour

No fermentation -colourless


Triple sugar iron agar was prepared and dispensed into tubes and sterilized at 1210C for quarter-hour and made slants. Tubes were inoculated with test organisms stabbing on the agar and streaking within the slants. The tubes were incubated at 370c all day and night.

Positive result: Colour on the medium switch the signal from yellow, blackening on the medium, and break inside the medium of lifting in the medium indicates acid production, H2S production and gas production respectively.


The standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was adopted to determine the antimicrobial profiles in the Staphylococcus aureus isolates against Methicillin. The nutrient broth was prepared and sterilized at 121°C and inoculated the isolates then incubated at 37°C for 24 hrs. After incubation period the broth culture were inoculated into surface on the Mueller-Hinton agar plates and antibiotic discs were placed then plates were incubated at 37°C for 18 to 20 h. The zone of inhibition and resistance was measured, recorded and interpreted in accordance with the recommendation on the disc manufacture.


The tube is packed with 0.5 ml of a single in 10 diluted rabbit plasma. To the tube, 0.1 ml of overnight broth culture of test bacteria is added. All the tubes are incubated at 37ºC and observed nearly four hours. Positive result’s indicated by gelling from the plasma, which remains available even after inverting the tube.



Took 1.5 ml of overnight broth culture in 2 ml micro centrifuge tubes.
The tubes were centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 5 minutes.
After centrifugation, the supernatant was discarded and also the pellet was collected. The pellet was suspended in 200μl of 1X TE buffer + 100μl of 10% SDS and mixed by vortexing.
The tubes were held in water bath at 60°C for 20 minutes.
Then added with 300μl of Phenol: Chloroform: Isoamyl alcohol mixture (24:25:1) to extract the DNA and mixed completely by vortexing.
The tubes were then centrifuged at 10000 rpm for ten minutes to separate the phases.
The aqueous phase containing the DNA was carefully removed and moved to new tubes.
Equal number of 100% Isopropanol was included with the tubes containing the aqueous phase.
It was mixed by inverting the tubes three to four times.
The tubes were then centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 10-20 minutes to pellet the DNA.
The supernatant was discarded plus the pellet was collected.
To the pellet, 200μl of 70% ethanol was added and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 10-20 minutes.
Then Ethanol was decanted completely along with the pellet was air-dried to offer purified DNA.
Re-suspended the dried DNA pellet in 20 μl of TE buffer and dissolved by tapping.
DNA solutions were stored at 4°C for more work.


Agarose gel electrophoresis is performed in a horizontal submarine electrophoresis unit. Thirty ml of just one % Agarose gel was prepared with 1X TBE buffer (don’t mix) and heated the information to get approximately clear solution for casting Agarose gel. After cooling the remedy, 7 µl of staining dye solution was added in the casting system.

The gel was in a position to solidify, and after that carefully disassembled on the casting system without disturbing the wells and put into 1X TBE buffer filled electrophoresis tank (the buffer level ought to be above gel). 5 µl of genomic sample DNA combined with 2 µl of gel loading dye after which loaded to gel and simultaneously loaded 3 µl of DNA marker provided from the nearby well.

The power card terminals was connected at respective positions, run the gel at 50 V, till the gel loading dye migrate over fifty percent the length of gel. Then powered down the unit and visualized the isolated DNA under UV Transilluminator.


Sucrose 40% and bromophenol blue (0.25%) were combined with sterile double drinking water.


Ethidium bromide (10mg) was blended with 10 ml of sterile sanitized water. (It is carcinogenic and must be treated or handled accordingly).

G) POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (Johnson & Tyler (1993)

The amplification method was carried by based on the Johnson & Tyler (1993) by modification.The sequences in the primers used were 5-ATGGCAGCATCAGCTTGATA-3 and 5- TTTCCAATAACCACCCGTTT-39 (Sigma, India). Thus yielding an amplicon 533 bp. PCR conditions were as described previously (Johnson & Tyler, 1993). Amplification was carried out in the Genei, India PCR system while using following procedure. The 20µl includes 2 μl of a single × PCR buffer, 1 mM of each in the primers (0.5 μl), 15 mM of each and every deoxynucleotide triphosphate (1 μl) and 5 U would be the final concentration of Taq DNA polymerase (0.5 μl) Template 1 μl and 14.5 μl of molecular grade water. After initial denaturation at 94°C for 4 min, the samples were afflicted by 30 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 1 min, annealing at 55°C for 1 min and extension at 72°C for 1 min. A final extension was performed at 72°C for 7 min. Following PCR, 20 μl with the reaction mixtures were analyzed by electrophoresis using a 1% agarose gel, containing ethidium bromide (0.2 mg/ml), in the use of an appropriate DNA molecular weight marker.


In the existing study 19 wound swab samples were collected for Occurrence of Methicillin resistance Staphylococcal contamination and coagulase negative isolates. Among the 19 wound swab 10 (52.6%) isolates of Staphylococcus were obtained by standard make sure selective media.


The selected isolates from mannitol salt sugar are large circular, convex, smooth, shiny, opaque and golden yellow color colonies were obtained. The cells are Gram-positive, non- motile and grape like cluster cocci arrangement. The catalase resulted as positive. In biochemical test result MR showed positive. The Staphylococcus isolates were maintained on nutrient agar plate additional studies.

The distribution of isolates in the different sorts of samples for example 5/10 (50%) isolates of burn, 3/4 (75%) from accident, 2/5 (40%) from skin samples

Among these types of samples highest occurrence extracted from accident (75%) and lowest occurrence in skin (40%)


Among the 10 degrees of S.aureus strains 8 (80%) isolates of coagulase negative S.aureus were obtained. There was a distribution of isolates from your different forms of samples for example 4/5 (80%) isolates from burn, 2/3 (66.6%) isolates from accident, 2/2 (100%) isolates from skin infection. Among the types of samples highest occurrence purchased from skin infection and lowest occurrence in accident.


Coagulase negative isolates were subjected into Methicillin stability test by agar disc diffusion method (Kirby Bauer method). All (8) with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitive or effectiveness methicillin antibiotic. Out off 10 isolates 8 (80%) was effectiveness Methicillin. Among the three types of samples the biggest resistances were noticed in Burn infection and skin infection wound samples (100%). In accident wound samples 33.3% of resistances isolates was obtained.

d) AMPLIFICATION OF TSST GENE FROM Staphylococcus aureus

In this PCR assay all isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was subjected based on the previous study. Among the 10 isolates the three isolates produce the TSST gene. The distributation of toxic gene from skin infection isolates has 100% and 33.3% from accident infection. In burn samples, TSST gene has not been observed.


A total of 19 samples were collected for the study. These samples were of three types namely Skin infection, Burn and Accident wound samples where Staphylococcus aureus was isolated by usage of selective media mannitol salt agar (MSA) and biochemical tests. Out from the 19 samples, 10 isolates were obtained. Among a few types of samples accident samples(75%) had highest prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus as well as burn wound samples (50%) and lastly skin infection samples (40%).

Among the 10 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 8 were found being coagulase negative by making use of coagulase make sure were distributed as, skin infection 100%, burn wound 80% and accident wound samples with all the least. (66.6%)

The 8 isolates of coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus which were removed from above were subsequently tested for antibacterial drug resistance dependant on Kirby – Bauer disk diffusion method. They were all found to be resistant against Methicillin antibiotic.

In another, all isolates of coagulase negative staphylococcus aureus were exposed to the PCR assay based on previous studies completed. Among the 8 isolates, 3 isolates produced the TSST gene. The distribution of toxic gene from skin infection isolates was found to get 100% which of accident wound samples was 33.3% whereas there was clearly no toxic gene from the burn wound samples.